This article focuses on how hydraulic fracturing activities have generated, and are still generating, a spectrum of regulatory responses. Stewart and Ingelson consider these regulatory inconsistencies as due to many variables. In Part I, the authors provide an overview of the emerging science on the connections between hydraulic fracturing, wastewater injection and induced seismicity. Part II maps the responses of state-level regulators in the US to this issue. Part III outlines environmental governance theories that help with the risks energy systems create, and Part IV evaluates US state-level responses to theories and practises.